WC19: Wheelchairs Used as Seats in Motor Vehicles

Canadian Clinical Blog by Sheilagh Sherman, BA, BHScOT, MHM, OT Reg. (Ont.) - Sunrise Medical

Hello all!

This month, let’s think about safety, wheelchairs, and transit. Individuals who remain seated in wheelchairs while travelling in vehicles are “45 times more likely to be injured in a crash than the typical passenger”1 (p. 2). The “typical” passenger in a vehicle transfers into the vehicle manufacturer’s seat, which is secured to the vehicle, and uses the occupant restraint system; that is, the seat belt system that also is secured to the vehicle. Individuals who must remain seated in wheelchairs while travelling in vehicles also are at risk of injury in “non-collision events”, such as sudden braking or sharp turning, resulting in the wheelchair tipping, securement failure, or the occupant falling out of the wheelchair1 (p. 4). Many individuals who must remain seated in the wheelchair during transit do not have postural control or the ability to stabilize themselves or their wheelchairs during these non-collision events, which can result in serious injuries.

The position paper on Wheelchairs Used as Seats in Motor Vehicles by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) states that the “ideal” safety practice is for individuals who use wheelchairs to “transfer into a manufacturer-installed vehicle seat and use the vehicle’s crash-tested occupant restraint system”1 (p.5). This is not always possible; for example, if a person is unable to safely transfer into a vehicle seat or requires the postural support provided by the wheelchair seating system. How can we promote safety for these individuals? Let’s take a look at wheelchair transportation safety standards.

Wheelchairs Used as Seats in Motor Vehicles (WC19)

If a person must remain seated in a wheelchair while travelling in a vehicle, it is important that the wheelchair meets certain standards. “WC19 is a voluntary industry standard for designing, testing and labeling a wheelchair that is ready to be used as a seat in a motor vehicle. A WC19 wheelchair has:

  • Four permanently attached and labeled securement points that can withstand the forces of a 30 mph, 20 g impact.
  • Specific securement point geometry that will accept a securement strap end fitting hook.
  • A clear path of travel that allows proper placement of vehicle mounted occupant safety belts next to the skeletal parts of the body,
  • Anchor points for an optional wheelchair anchored pelvic safety belt, that is designed to withstand a 30 mph, 20 g impact, that has a standard interface on it that allows it to connect to a vehicle-anchored shoulder belt.”2

What do these bullets mean?

Permanently Attached Securement Points

The four securement points on a wheelchair are the brackets installed on the wheelchair – two at the front of the wheelchair and two at the rear of the wheelchair – to which securement straps can be attached. The photograph below, to the left, illustrates the securement points on the front of a manual wheelchair. The photograph below, to the right, illustrates one of the securement points on the rear of a wheelchair. The hook symbol on the brackets is the required label that indicates that the wheelchair securement points conform to the WC19 standards. If the metal rings do not have the hook logo, it means that the wheelchair has not been crash tested successfully for occupant safety.3

WC19 hook logo examples

Photographs are copyright Sunrise Medical, Inc.

The forces that the securements points must withstand – 30 miles per hour (or 48 kilometres per hour), 20 g impact – refer to the testing standards. Thirty miles per hour is the same standard that is used for testing passenger vehicles and child safety seats.4 When testing wheelchairs for WC19 compliance, the wheelchair is secured to a sled on a test track and an appropriately-sized crash test dummy is secured to the wheelchair. A frontal impact sled test is used in which there is a 30 mile per hour change in speed, simulating a frontal crash. A sudden change of speed of 30 miles per hour represents the 95th percentile of crash severity of frontal crashes of cars, minivans and SUVs.4 Therefore, most crashes in the “real world” will be less severe than the testing conditions.

Securement Point Geometry

The geometry of the securement point must allow for one-handed attachment of the hook of a tiedown strap when a driver or caregiver reaches for the securement points from one side of the wheelchair.1 This means that the securement brackets are easily identifiable and easily accessible. In addition, when tiedown straps are applied to the securement points on the wheelchair and to the typical anchor points on the floor of the vehicle, the position of the straps should not be close to any sharp edges that could damage the strap material in the event of a crash.

Clear Path for Placement of Vehicle Mounted Occupant Safety Belts

A WC19 compliant wheelchair may be used with a wheelchair tiedown and occupant-restraint system (WTORS) in a vehicle. The occupant restraint part of WTORS is a three-point lap and shoulder belt. (More on WTORS in my next Clinical Corner article.) A WC19 compliant wheelchair allows for the easy passage of the shoulder belt, from the mounting in the vehicle and connecting to the pelvic belt near the hip of the wheelchair seated individual, without getting in the way. “The shoulder belt needs to be snug and positioned over the middle of the clavicle and across the sternum, and then connect to the pelvic belt near the hip”5 (p. 11). Wheelchair manufacturers are required to disclose the rating that each wheelchair model is assigned after undergoing independent testing with respect to accommodating the proper use and positioning of a vehicle anchored belt-restraint. The ratings are poor, acceptable, good, or excellent.1

Anchor Points for a Pelvic Safety Belt

A pelvic safety belt is different than a positioning belt that is used for postural support in seating. Unless they have been labeled as having been crash tested, postural supports, such as positioning belts and chest harnesses, do not provide for restraint for an occupant seated in a wheelchair in a vehicle. In contrast, a safety belt is “a length of energy-absorbing webbing material used in occupant restraint systems.”6 That is, a pelvic safety belt is specifically designed, tested, and labelled for crashworthiness. A WC19 compliant wheelchair has anchor points that allow for the installation of a pelvic safety belt that meets the testing standards and that can also accommodate the fastening of a vehicle-mounted shoulder belt, which forms the 3-point lap and shoulder belt occupant restraint of WTORS.

It should be noted that WC19 is a voluntary standard, which means that it has not been mandated by federal or provincial legislation. Many wheelchair manufacturers have their products tested in order to be WC19 compliant, however, not all wheelchairs have been tested or meet these standards. If a person will be using a wheelchair as a seat in a motor vehicle, or may in the future need to remain seated in a wheelchair during transit, it is important to consider the safety of the wheelchair at the time of prescription. If a product is prescribed that is not crashworthy, the rationale for its prescription “should be clearly documented to avoid possible confusion for parents and transporters over who made the final decision and why, if the lack of transit technology should result in injury”5 (p. 9).

There is a lot to consider when it comes to wheelchairs, seating, and transit safety. As I mentioned, the next Clinical Corner article will address WTORS. We will also look at WC20 – the standard for seating – in a future Clinical Corner article.


  1. RESNA. (n.d.) RENSA’s Position on Wheelchairs Used as Seats in Motor Vehicles. Retrieved from http://www.resna.org/sites/default/files/legacy/resources/position-papers/RESNAPositiononWheelchairsUsedasSeatsinMotorVehicles.pdf
  2. Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Wheelchair Transportation Safety. (2010). The WC19 Information Resource: Crash-tested Wheelchairs & Seating Systems. Retrieved from http://www.rercwts.org/WC19.html
  3. Fuhrman, S.I., Buning, M.E., & Karg, P.E. (2008). Wheelchair Transportation. Ensuring Safe Community Mobility. Retrieved from http://www.rercwts.org/RERC_WTS2_KT/RERC_WTS2_KT_Pub/RERC_WTS_Pub_Doc/OTPract_100608_WTScommunity.pdf
  4. Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Wheelchair Transportation Safety. (2008). Wheelchair Transportation Safety Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from http://www.rercwts.org/RERC_WTS2_FAQ/RERC_WTS_FAQ.html
  5. Shutrump, S.E., Manary, M., & Buning, M.E. (2008). Transportation for Students Who Use Wheelchairs on the School Bus. Retrieved from http://www.rercwts.org/RERC_WTS2_KT/RERC_WTS2_KT_Pub/RERC_WTS_Pub_Doc/OTPract_082508_WTSschool.pdf
  6. University of Michigan. (2012). Ride Safe. A Glossary of Terms. Retrieved from http://www.travelsafer.org/glossary.shtml

As always, please provide your comments, questions, and suggestions regarding Clinical Corner. Please email me at Sheilagh.Sherman@sunmed.com. I look forward to hearing from you!

Sheilagh Sherman BA, BHScOT, MHM, OT Reg. (Ont.) - Clinical Education Manager, Canada

Sheilagh Sherman, BA, BHScOT, MHM, OT Reg. (Ont.)

Sheilagh Sherman joined Sunrise Medical Canada in 2010 as a Clinical Educator. Prior to joining Sunrise, Sheilagh gained extensive clinical experience working in a variety of settings, including neurological rehabilitation, complex continuing care, and community rehabilitation. As the Clinical Education Manager, Sheilagh is a clinical resource for therapists across Canada involved in seating and mobility. She leads workshops, seminars, and webinars on the clinical aspects of seating and mobility. In addition, Sheilagh has presented at national and international conferences on seating and mobility.

Sheilagh also has an educational background that makes her well suited to the role of Clinical Education Manager. Sheilagh earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science from the University of Toronto in 1988, which enables her to understand healthcare policy and policy changes. Sheilagh graduated with a Bachelor of Health Sciences (Occupational Therapy) degree from McMaster University in 1994. In 2012, Sheilagh earned a Certificate in Adult Education/Staff Training from Seneca College. She applies adult learning principles to the workshops she leads. Finally, she also has a Master of Health Management (MHM) degree from McMaster University after graduating in 2015. Courses that Sheilagh completed during the MHM degree, such as Knowledge Translation, Evaluating Sources of Evidence, and Quality & Safety in Healthcare, assist Sheilagh in using an evidence-based approach in her work.

In her free time, Sheilagh enjoys running, in addition to practicing yoga.

Date: 2014-11-25

DISCLAIMER: FOR PROFESSIONAL USE ONLY. THIS WEBSITE (AND THE DOCUMENTS REFERENCED HEREIN) DO NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. Sunrise Medical (CA) LLC (“Sunrise”) does not provide clinician services. The information contained on this website (and the documents referenced herein), including, but not limited to, the text, graphics, images, and descriptions, are for informational purposes only and should be utilized as a general resource for clinicians and suppliers to then use clinical reasoning skills to determine optimal seating and mobility solutions for individual patients. No material on this website (or any document referenced herein) is intended to be used as (or a substitute for) professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Never disregard your professional medical training when providing medical advice or treatment because of something you have read on this website (or any document referenced herein). Clinicians should review this (and any other materials) carefully and confirm information contained herein with other sources. Reliance on this website (and the information contained herein) is solely at your own risk.


AdaptedStrollers AdaptiveDriveControls AdjustableSeating Anniversary assessment BackRest BackSupport Bariatric Batteries BestPractice BodyShape Camber CasterHousingPosition CentreOfGravity ChangeInFunction ClinicalEducator COG Comfort ControlModule Cushion CushionCover CushionDesign CushionMaterial Customization CustomSeating Design dissipation DriveWheel DynamicTilt EarlyInterventionDevices Edema Education ElectricScooters ElectricWheelchair Electronics Encoders Falls FallsPrevention FemoralLoading Growth Handcycling Hardware HeadRest HeadSupport Heat ISO7176-19 KnowledgeTranslation LateralPosition Maneuverability Manual ManualWheelchair ModularFrame ModularSeating Moisture Motors OccupantRestraint OccupationalTherapy OTA/PTA OutcomeMeasures Outcomes Parasport PelvicObliquity PelvicRotation positioning PosteriorPelvicTilt Postural PowerAssist PowerMobility PowerWheelchair Pressure PressureInjury PressureManagement PressureRedistribution PressureUlcer PreventionOfSliding Programming protection PushrimActivatedPowerAssistWheelchair RearWheel Recline RehabAssistant ReviewArticle Rigid rigidity RigidWheelchair RollingResistance scooter Scooters SeatElevation Seating SeatingAndMobility SeatingGoals SeatingProductParameters skin SkinProtection Sliding SpecialtyControls Sports StaffTraining StandardizedTerms StandardWheelchair SteerCorrection supports technology TherapistAssistant Tilt Tilt-in-Space TiltMechanism transit VibrationDampening WC18 WC19 WC20 Wear Weight WeightShift WeightShifting Wheelchair wheelchairbasketball WheelchairConfiguration WheelchairCushion WheelchairProvision WheelchairProvisionSteps WheelchairTennis WheelchairTiedowns